The Logical thinkers and Friends

News Letter   Vol.4   02/03/00

This Weeks Topics

"Death of a Hero Cop killed by his own"  Dedicated to slain Black Officer Sgt.Cornel Young Jr. Page 2 click here

 "Rally at the Dome" Great Pictures of the M.L.K and Flag rally in South Carolina. "Click here" submitted by Monica C. Dantzler-Thomas 

"The Amadou Dialio trial begins" By Bryan Robinson

 "Follow the leader"  By Angela Ards

"The Diversity of Our Future" By C.R. Hamilton

"Free Entrepreneurial Training" submitted by BCauseICare

"Gaining Capital for New Business Venture" By JAMKELLY

"Women and Small Business" By unknown submitted by BCauseICare

"Why a "Puffy" Combs" by  Earl Ofari Hutchinson  

" The Bricks of Life" a very touching piece submitted by Blackfoxx


"Autobiography of a people"  by Herb Boyd

  Family and Health

Resolving Conflicts: We Don't Have To Argue About It By; Dr. Keiron Brown    

"HIV Ancestor Seen Going Back to '30" The Associated Press

Announcements on page 2

This week is the beginning of Black history month I have put together a few really good things  relating to black history on an external link. click here also We have the Amadou Diallo Trial kicking off which seems to be moving ahead in a very fair manner At first I thought the trail would be a farce but justice seems to be prevailing The jury selection has been fair with a good make up of jurors. Then we have the tragedy in Providence Rhode Island with the Shooting death of a black police officer by fellow white officers. My question is Are white police officers so blind with fear of black men that all they see is color and not a person . Racial profiling can no longer be covered up anymore white society can no longer look the other way, Too many innocent black men are being gunned down or as we saw in The Abner Loumia fiasco in what's called a war on crime by police. But guess what the war is on crime not on black men. The Irony to this tragedy is that just 3 days before a justice dept. report written in part by Sgt. Young's father Major. Cornell Young Sr. was critical of white police officers and racial profiling.

 Markus Rice Editor

 Have something you would like to submit e-mail it to me by Tuesday for the following week.

Here is another place to check out more positive people

 make new friends, discuss the issues and post messages on the hot topics below.

12 jurors selected in Diallo trial, opens Wednesday

A 12-panel jury has been selected in the trial of the four NYPD officers accused of murder in the slaying of West  African immigrant Amadou Diallo. dialloapic.jpg (5558 bytes)                 With only the four alternates left to be chosen, opening statements are expected Wednesday.

The jury consists of six men and six women eight whites and four African-Americans. Jury selection, which began Monday, has gone quicker than anticipated the process was expected to last the entire week. But five jurors were seated Monday and the remaining seven were impaneled the following morning.

The selection of four African-Americans to the jury particularly the choice of a black woman [and former Bronx resident] as jury foreperson seems to erase concerns that minorities would not be picked from the predominantly white jury pool in Albany.

Citing pretrial publicity, a New York appellate court ruled last December that the four officers could not get a fair trial in the Bronx and ordered the case moved up to Albany. But some of Diallo's supporters, including the Rev. Al Sharpton, felt the officers should be tried in the Bronx, which is 38 percent African-American and 42 percent Hispanic, instead of Albany, which is 89 percent white.

The four officers Sean Carroll, Richard Murphy, Edward McMellon and Kenneth Boss are charged with second-degree murder in Diallo's February 1999 shooting. Diallo was gunned down in the vestibule of his Bronx home when, the defense says, the undercover officers thought he was reaching for a gun. Diallo did not have a weapon; he was armed only with a beeper and a wallet. The officers fired 41 bullets; 19 struck Diallo. The officers, who were members of New York City's Street Crime Unit, were in plain clothes; they were looking for an alleged serial rapist when they encountered Diallo.

According to the defense attorneys, all four officers are expected to testify. The officers reportedly claim that Diallo was acting "suspiciously" when they approached him, noting that he backed into the vestibule of his building when he saw them. They claim they identified themselves and told Diallo to stop, but, for some reason, he didn't comply. The shooting allegedly erupted when the officers thought he was reaching for a gun. However, Diallo only had a beeper.

The lighting of the vestibule or lack thereof is expected to provide a foundation for the defense. The officers' defense reportedly plans to introduce a videotape made by police internal affairs that attempts to prove the lighting in front of Diallo's building was poor the night he was killed. On this tape, an officer says he is conducting an ambient light test and compares the lighting in Diallo's building to the building next door.

However, there may be conflict among police investigators about the quality of the lighting. One reportedly said early in the case that the vestibule's light was off, making the entrance to Diallo's building completely dark that night. Another, however, claimed the light was on. Still, the testimony of an EMS worker who claims she needed a flashlight while she tried to revive Diallo may help buffer the officers' defense.

Another key issue at trial will be whether Diallo was down at any time during the shooting barrage. According to the defense, Diallo never fell during the shooting. Stephen Worth, who represents McMellon, has said that the officers continued to fire because Diallo was standing as he was hit 19 times. He did not fall down until the shooting stopped, Worth has claimed.

However, autopsy reports suggest otherwise. One wound may truly and vividly show that the officers continued to shoot Diallo while he was down. Doctors found that a bullet entered Diallo's calf muscle just above the right ankle, traveled up his leg and lodged in the back of the knee. If Diallo had been standing up, the bullet would likely have traveled horizontally from the shin to the back of the leg, not directly up the leg.

If convicted of second-degree murder, Carroll, Murphy, McMellon and Boss face 25 years to life in prison.

Bryan Robinson

Follow the leader

By Angela Ards

I always liked those T-shirts that, over a backdrop of icons resembling a sable Mt. Rushmore, proclaimed, "Marcus, Malcolm, Martin & Me." I actually don't remember the sequence of the names; maybe "Mandela" was up in the mix as well. But it was the "me" part that I loved, proudly staking claim to a legacy of leadership, even at the risk of being corny.

I haven't seen those shirts in a long time. Some, I imagine, are packed away alongside red-black-and-green flags, kente, and Black Power buttons-the sentimental mementos of one-time revolutionaries come-of-age. Most, no doubt, are casualties of apathy. While no one needs another sad essay detailing the leadership crisis in black America, the present vacuum has weaned us from ever again looking for a messiah-the next Marcus or Malcolm or Martin. And by now, most have accepted the mistaken notion of fallen rappers Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls as martyred revolutionaries for what it was: a desperate desire for leaders like the ones back in the day.

Looking out and finding the landscape empty, we -call us the hip-hop generation- often blame our elders -call them the civil rights generation- for not passing the baton/cross/ball (or any other metaphor you care to conjure). The critique may be valid, but it`s still a cop out that excuses us from looking within. The truth is, the baton`s been in our hands, the cross on our backs, the ball in our court for quite some time now. Young people (35 and under), who make up more than 50% of African American communities, can and must take the lead for change. We are the leaders we have been waiting for.

Franz Fanon said, "Each generation must out of relative obscurity discover its mission, fulfill it, or betray it." Leaders define issues, set agendas, create plans of action. The civil right generation decided their mission was to dismantle Southern apartheid. Working within a civil rights framework, they defined power, and leadership, as political. So they worked for the vote, used it, became elected officials. In the 30 years since, we have watched the first black mayors, congressional reps, superintendents preside over school decline, prison growth and urban decay, as white flight to the suburbs took the tax base with them.

The 21st century agenda is not as singular as `60s Jim Crow, but it is as definitive and dire: (1) criminal justice, including police brutality and disproportionate incarceration, (2) the failures of public education, (3) the loss of voting rights, and (4) the need for jobs that pay a living way. What our generation learned from our elder`s shortsightedness is that power is also economic. It`s not enough to be called the boss. You have to have the resources to implement your will. But it can't all be about the Benjamin's.

As we move into the 21st century, the challenge of the hip-hop generation will be to create ways of living and loving that are about principle, not just profit or serving anonymous ends of global corporate capitalism. It will take some soul-searching. It's been too easy to excuse the materialism, misogyny, and violence within hip hop as simple reflections of American society at large. Finger-pointing aside, we must ask ourselves to what degree has the state of mind in hip hop contributed to the current leadership crisis? Have we failed ourselves by keeping things "real" and "ghetto fabulous?" Hip hop style and attitude can make it hard to tap into our vulnerabilities, our humanity, but it's those very qualities that are the foundations of collective strength and solidarity. Revolution is like charity: it begins at home, with self and with "me."

Angela Ards is the Haywood Burns Fellow at the Nation Institute. Her writing has appeared regularly in the Village Voice and she is an editor at Ms. Magazine.

Election 2000

Who do you think is going to win

Al Gore (Democrat)
Bill Bradley (Democrat)
George W. Bush (GOP)
Alan Keyes (GOP)
John McCain (GOP)
Steve Forbes (GOP)
Pat Buchanan (reform)
Donald Trump (reform)
Gary Bauer (GOP)
Orrin Hatch (GOP)
Colin Powell (I wish)
Edison McDaniels (Libertarian)

Current Results

Last weeks Poll

Education 64%

The Diversity of Our Future

 BY C.R. Hamilton

     As the population of people of color within the United States rises each year, and as the nation's schools become increasingly diverse according to ethnicity, it will soon become economically and socially essential that every ethnic group in America learn another language.  The 1990 census revealed that one out of every four people who live in the United States is a person of color and that one out of every three people will be a person of color by the turn of the century.  Now, at the dawn of a new millennium, the country continues to grow at a rapid pace both in ethnic and economic diversity.  For instance, in the nation's schools students of color constitute more than 25% of the population, it is estimated that by 2020 the percentage will be near 46%, and 27% of those children will be living below the poverty level.  So what do the above discoveries, theories and statistics pronounce?  That, if success as a nation depends on our children, then the implementation of a new plan to better educated them must be enforced.

     If the schools are to be the target areas to increase diversity in the nation, then the curricula must change.  The teachers in the school systems must also be taught to relate to different cultural groups.  Therefore, the standard for teachers must change.  Many more people of color will feel it necessary to promote the customs and values that reflect their own ethnicity, such as Afro-Americans demanded throughout the history of this country.  Now that society has progressed in race relations as far as tolerance is concerned, it will probably become easier to meet the demands of other ethnic groups.  If the country neglects to meet the changes, then there will be an up rise from different races in protest of America's biases.  It would seem only fair and urbane to adjust to the changes in society other than resist them.  For, it the country is built on equality, then, this adjustment is sufficient for its advancement. Multicultural education is a concept in the making.  In order for each ethnic group to be represented and respected equally there will need to be positive aspects of that culture reflected in textbooks.  No longer can Europe stand in the spotlight on the pages of the history books, or it the limelight of scientific breakthrough.  Other nations will have to be recognized for their contributions to the world.  Multicultural education is simply an expanded form of Black History month except there will most likely be a month for all other cultures; Asian-American month, Hispanic-American month, Native-American month, and so on.  The design may be presented another way but the central idea is along these lines.  All Anglo-Americans who have a problem with Black History month or acknowledging blacks as people may be in for a surprise when other ethnic groups begin to demand more often a month for their cultural traits to be posted.  Consequently, as America grows in diversity, racism will wither into the pages of a history book.  No longer can there be an economic division based on ethnic backgrounds.  Opportunity for all will be essential if the country as a whole is to stay afloat in the global economy.  The children today that live in poverty must be recognized and their situations must be studied to eliminate the problem of poverty.  If not, the schools that are going to hold half of the nations ethnically diverse children will be teaching not only ethnic diversity but must fund any government programs that will guarantee those students a decent education.  In other words, either the country will have to eliminate poverty as a whole, or prepare to shell out bundles of money to economically deprived children just so they can grow into the knowledge of the 21st century. Ironic as it may seem, majority Anglo-America will eventually have to learn to accept any and all ethnic cultures no matter what color they are, what nation they are from, or what system of government they are use to.  Although America is a Democracy, and its economic prosperity stems from capitalism, the future generations are going to soon realize that if, as a human race the world is to advance into a revolutionary age of technology, the petty differences must be set aside, including color and class.  The "Melting Pot" is surely headed that way.  The assimilation of various cultures is soon going to outnumber all hate groups who are driven by the color of skin and choice of lifestyle.  The elite will soon have to bow to the needs of the masses, and in order to communicate these ideas, we will all need to understand one language.  

check out more By C.R. Hamltion at his site Sanctified Ghetto

Entrepreneurial Training

My Own Business is a FREE course, offered two times per week over five consecutive weeks, that will give you the information you need to launch or expand your own business.

My Own Business is a nonprofit organization started in 1993. The mission is to nurture entrepreneurship throughout the world by providing a free, fully packaged training course that organizations, such as Rotary, can sponsor and conduct. The course focus is on the basic do's and don'ts of starting and operating a business.

Why a "Puffy" Combs?

Earl Ofari Hutchinson

The indictment of rap star-tycoon Sean "Puffy" Combs on gun charges stemming from a shoot-out at a Manhattan nightclub doesn't answer these questions. Why do men such as Combs who are rich and famous beyond their wildest fantasies act like thugs rather than gentlemen? And why, despite white fears that young blacks are the ultimate menaces to society in America, are their victims in almost all cases other young blacks? These questions can't be answered by indignant finger-pointing at the oft-times violent and self-indulgent world of rap music.

During two centuries of slavery and a century of legal segregation, blacks were forbidden often under pain of death to strike back or vent their anger at whites. And since black-on-black violence was often ignored or lightly punished by the authorities, this left deep psychic scars on many black men. The internalized anger was transformed into violence against other blacks. The consequences have been deadly. In the last two decades murder has consistently ranked high among the leading causes of death of young blacks. Their assailants were not white racist cops or Klan nightriders, but other black males. Unfortunately, their death toll has soared because far too many Americans still don't get too excited about black violence as long as it doesn't spill over the borders of the ghettos into their suburbs.

But pent-up anger is only one cause of the dangerous cycle of black-on-black violence. Many black males are engaged in a seemingly eternal desperate search for self-identity and esteem. Their tough talk, swagger, and mannerisms are defense mechanisms they use to boost their esteem. They measure their status or boost their self-worth by demonstrating their proficiency in physical fights or the sexual abuse of black women. An accidental bump, an ill-spoken word, a prolonged stare from a stranger is often taken by insecure black males as an ego challenge or an affront to their manhood. That perceived challenge often escalates into violence. In Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, two black men were seated next to each other in a tavern. Violence nearly ensued when one asked another a simple question 

"Oh, take it easy," I growled. "A man can ask a question, can't he?" "You got your answer," he said turning around on the stool, "so now I guess you are ready to pull your knife?" He didn't, but he made it clear that he thought about doing great bodily harm to the other guy. He shouted that he was ready to die, and willing to take someone with him. Black men like him feel life is futile and that violence is both honorable and redemptive.

Whether it's pro basketball's ex-clown prince Dennis Rodman brazenly announcing in his best-selling book that he is Bad As I Wanna Be or Combs just as brazenly naming his record company Bad Boy Records, their message is, "Don't mess with me if you want to stay healthy." Even when a young mogul like Combs comes from a middle-class background, successfully claws his way to the top, lives in a pricey million-dollar home, enjoys a jet-set lifestyle, possesses a colossal bank account and dates superstar movie celeb Jennifer Lopez, this doesn't totally transform him. The internal rage still lays dangerously close to the surface. Anything, whether it's an insult, personal challenge, criticism or rejection, that happens on the street, in a corporate record executive's office, or in a Manhattan nightclub can trigger that rage. What is just as galling as the violent acting out of Combs and his associates is that some blacks reflexively cite the litany of excuses, such as poverty, broken homes, and abuse, to excuse their violence. For an absurdly brief moment some blacks stretched reality to the outer limits by claiming that black communities are urban jungles where violence is permissible as an ordinary means of survival. These explanations for the mindless violence that sometimes racks poor, black neighborhoods are phony and self-serving. And whoever is foolish enough to buy these excuses gives a tacit green light to a handful of young men to commit aggressive violence and get away with it. Combs hired Johnnie Cochran to defend him. He almost certainly expects that Cochran can massage the evidence against him as he did in the O. J. Simpson case to beat the rap. Even if Cochran succeeds and he does get off there's still a price to pay. The most immediate is that Bertelsmann Music Group, the company he has a joint marketing venture with, may cut him loose. But the far bigger price is that when men such as Combs commit violent acts, or surround themselves with those who do, they leave a long trail of victims, cast shame and disgrace on themselves and, perhaps worst of all, reinforce the notion that young black males are indeed menaces to society.

Earl Ofari Hutchinson is a nationally syndicated columnist and the director of the National Alliance for Positive Action.
    Earl Ofari Hutchinson  

Gaining Capital for New Business Venture


- Seek out friends, family
- Join a credit union, if already a part of one, speak with a representative
- Invest in a winning company stock, first observe the market, or speak only with a knowledgeable, experienced, professional broker.
- Pool some money in mutual funds - short-term investment option
- Utilize your co. 401K
- Speak with your banker about short term investments which over time lead up to a portion of the required capital
- Get a partner, determine what percent you will both invest, after an agreed upon term, your partner can sell you his share of the business if you are bent on being a sole proprietor. Absolutely involve an attorney in this process.
- Save, save, save....
- After exhausting all possible avenues, seek out a bank loan (beware, you have approx. a 50% chance or less of getting a loan for a start-up business where the plan does not do a good job of identifying the purpose and market of the proposed business. Also speak with your local SBA.

Other quick cash investments for start-up:
- A garage sale - get rid of things you can do without, or you are just not utilizing.
- Sell an online product - utilize a free web site. Use the drop ship method where you will never need to store inventory. Nothing to lose because you are not buying in advance for re-sale.
Good luck! I hope some of this will give you ideas.

I got this from yahoo's business tip of the day......

Networking in the Chamber

Your local Chamber of Commerce exists to help the growth of businesses in its area. For the price of dues, the Chamber is a great resource for ideas, referrals, and potential customers. Membership also entitles you to a free directory of Chamber members, and to purchase target mailing lists and other marketing resources. When you attend meetings and functions, you can build relationships with local VIPs and business owners. These relationships can be developed for sharing marketing ideas, referrals, and selling your product.

Joining certainly worked for Cheryl Spano, owner of Bianca's Biscuits & Baskets, a local and mail-order gift basket service located in Fitchburg, Mass. At her first Chamber function she met a person from a local hotel and began talking about Valentine's Day. She wound up making all the hotel's promotional baskets for Valentine's Day Weekend. The profit from the order well exceeded what she paid in annual dues.

Women and Small Business
Why Women Are Good At Small Business

submitted by JAMKELLY
Although men and women may approach business in a slightly different way, the explosive growth of women-owned businesses over the past decade attests to the Success of their non-traditional style.

More than half of women business owners (53 percent) emphasize intuition or "right-brain" instead of "left-brain," which emphasizes analysis, the processing of information methodically, and developing procedures. Intuitive processes often allow someone to see opportunities that aren't readily apparent and to know if they are right without the use of reason and analysis.
The way in which women business owners make decisions is usually more whole-brained than men's (i.e. it is more evenly distributed between right-brain and left-brain). This allows someone to use creative and analytical processes, a characteristic that is critical for small business management, especially in uncertain situations.
Women business owners tend to reflect on decisions, and to weigh options and outcomes before taking action. In addition, women don't hesitate to gather information from business advisors and associates. The advantage here is the shared knowledge that is gathered through interpersonal interactions and liaisons.
Women entrepreneurs describe their businesses in family terms and see their business relationships as a network. This "personal touch" is often what drives employee motivation and productivity. The downside is however that they may lack policies and procedures which are clearly stated.
Women have the ability to balance different tasks and priorities. In business for themselves or for someone else, the ability to be flexible and adaptable is a distinct advantage these days when everyone is expected to perform many duties.
Women entrepreneurs tend to find satisfaction and Success from building relationships with customers and employees, from having control of their own destiny, and from doing something that they consider worthwhile. We spend the majority of our lives at work. If our work and our personal values are not in alignment, sooner or later we feel conflict. Women entrepreneurs have used this internal conflict as a motivation in order to create the life that they desire.
Entrepreneurs in general are more similar to each other than they are to the working population in general. Compared to the general working population, entrepreneurs tend to be more logical and analytical in the way they make decisions, no matter their sex.

Author unknown.

The Bricks of Life

About ten years ago, a young and very successful executive named Josh was traveling down a Chicago neighborhood street.  He was going a bit to fast in his sleek, black Jaguar XKE, which was only two months old.  He was watching for kids darting out from between parked cars and slowed down when he thought he saw something.  As his car passed, no child darted out,
 but a brick sailed out and WHUMP! It smashed into the Jag's shiny black side door!  

SCREECH...!!!! Brakes slammed!   

Gears ground into reverse, and tires madly spun the Jaguar back to the spot from where the brick had  been thrown. Josh jumped out of the car, grabbed the kid and pushed him up against a parked car.  He shouted at the kid, "What was that all about and who are you?  Just what the heck are you doing?!"  Building up a head of steam, he went on. "That's my new Jag, That brick you threw is gonna cost you a lot of money. Why did you throw it?"

 "Please, mister, please..I'm sorry!  I didn't know what else to do!" pleaded the youngster. "I threw the brick because no one else would stop!" Tears were dripping down the boys chin as he pointed around the parked car.  It's my brother, mister," he said. "He rolled off the curb and fell out of his wheelchair and I can't lift him up." Sobbing, the boy asked the executive, "Would you please help me get him back into his wheelchair? He's hurt and he's too heavy for me." Moved beyond words, the young executive tried desperately to swallow the rapidly swelling lump in his throat.  Straining he lifted the young man back into the wheelchair and took out his handkerchief and wiped the scrapes and cuts, checking to see that everything was going to be OK.
 He then watched the younger brother push him down the sidewalk toward their home.
It was a long walk back to the sleek, black, shining 12 cylinder Jaguar  XKE --- a long and slow walk.  Josh never did fix the side door of his Jaguar.
He kept the dent to remind him not to go through life so fast that  someone has to throw a brick at him to get his attention...
Some bricks are softer than others.  Feel for the bricks of life coming at you.

List of links that you will find More info

 Wonders of the African world with

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. If you missed the special on P.B.S.  

www.The Marcus Garvey

And for our Caribbean Friends

get the latest Carib news click here.

The Afrocentric Experience is dedicated to the empowerment and the enlightenment processes of all people through out the world especially those of African descent in Africa and the African diaspora.




         The Continuing Fight for Second Construction Aid

         Wiring Schools to Provide Education for the Information and Telecommunications Age

         The Federal "E-Rate" Providing Discounts for Telecommunications Service to Schools and Libraries



         Important Legislation to End Punitive Immigration Policies

         New Initiatives for Amnesty Legislation

         Caribbean Trade and Economic Policies: A Comprehensive Approach

         World Trade Organization (WTO) Impact on African Trade


         New Strategies to Save Medicaid, Medicare and Social Security

         Tax Reform Which Allows Individuals and Families to Pay Less While Corporations Pay Their Fair Share

         New Initiatives to Gain Prescription Drug Benefits




 Autobiography of a people 

cover Herb Boyd

It is with great pleasure and almost unbridled enthusiasm that I announce my
most recent book "Autobiography of a People."  While it took me two years to
assemble this impressive roster of luminaries and lesser known but
significant contributors, the book in reality is a culmination of more than
thirty of years of teaching and studying black history.
 I noticed when I first began to teach at Wayne State University in Detroit the need to have a comprehensive text that would poignantly distill the tragedy and triumph of our odyssey in America.  These excerpts, this book, stitched together in a seamless fashion I hope, is my attempt to gather a collection of experiences and memories that will at least guide readers to a better understanding of black culture and provide the stimulation to provoke further research.

Many of the ideas for "Autobiography of a People" were culled from readers and writers just like you.  Your letters, emails, commentaries and news stories have
been most instructive to our purposes.  Let this book, then, be a way of returning your
lessons and asking you to continue to support and contribute to this most exciting venture of
ours into cyberspace.  Give us your feedback on the book and the site-web
need your reaction, your responses to push us onward in our struggle for success and empowerment.
To purchase the book online click on this link to Autobiography of a People  

Best regards,

Herb Boyd
National Editor, The Black World Today

Family and health:

...And One for All
By; Dr. Keiron Brown 

What is meant by the term, "family" has changed a great deal over the past few decades. The make-up of the family system in generations past, dad, mom, and the kids all living in the same residence, is not as pervasive as it once was. Having this arrangement of people in a home has traditionally been thought of as the "right way" to do things, at least partially due to the perception that such a family unit was stronger and more stable because of the presence of two adult breadwinners.

Not too long ago, if one were to whisper that one came from a single-parent household, there was the risk of being seen by others as having had a deficient upbringing. The parents involved, as well as the kids, were often made to feel guilty or inferior. However, due to the prevalence of single-parent households today, hopefully that perception is changing. In general, it is better for the children to have one good parent than a good one and a bad one, or to have two mediocre ones.

The mere presence of two parents neither guarantees the raising of a good child, nor does it mean that children will be happier or better adjusted than in a more traditional home environment. As is so often the case, one of the most important factors in raising children is the quality of the parenting. When parenting is consistent, nurturing, and attentive, kids tend to feel valued, loved, and secure. Consistent structure in the home, in terms of rules, consequences, and rewards, go a long way in helping kids develop a sense of competence, independence, and high self-esteem.

In practice, I've rarely seen that just having two parents in the home solves any problems. Depending on the quality of the relationship between the parents and with them and the child, having two parents in the house can actually be detrimental. If two people are constantly bickering and arguing, angry and frustrated, it will be very difficult for them to focus positive attention and have quality interaction with their kids. If the single-parent is consistent and can have a good relationship with his or her children, none of them is likely to perceive the situation as deficient or inferior.

"Single-parents should be viewed as the symbols of strength that they truly are. Which shows more strength: two people lifting a heavy object, or one person lifting it? Good single-parents succeed despite the odds, not fail because of them.

    Tell Dr. Keiron Brown what you thought of the article.

HIV Ancestor Seen
Going Back to '30

he worldwide AIDS epidemic has been traced to a single viral ancestor the HIV Eve that emerged perhaps around 1930.

Earlier research had suggested that the epidemic began in the first half of the 20th century, but the latest analysis appears to be the most definitive so far.

Bette Korber, who keeps a database of HIV genetic information at the Los Alamos National Lab in New Mexico, calculated HIV's family tree by looking at the rate the virus mutates over time. She assumed these genetic changes happen at a constant rate and, using a supercomputer, clocked the mutations back through time to a common ancestor.

Korber estimated that the current epidemic dates to one or a small group of infected humans around 1930, though the ancestor virus could have emerged as early as 1910 or as late as 1950.

Experts think that HIV's ancestor is a virus that ordinarily infects chimpanzees. Somehow it spread to people perhaps through a bite or hunting mishap in west equatorial Africa.

The Associated Press

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